You are learning about fertilizers. The effect of fertilizers How about crop yield? How fertilizers are divided and the effects of each fertilizer. The following article will help you have more knowledge about fertilizers.
- Basic concept: Fertilizers are substances and compounds that are added to the soil to increase the fertility of the soil as food for plants, they contain one or more nutrients needed for plants to grow and develop for high yields.
- The concept according to the Decree on State management of fertilizers: Fertilizer is a product that has the function of providing nutrients for plants or has the effect of improving the soil.
Fertilizers are divided into what types?
In fact, there are many ways to classify fertilizers. Each classification is based on different characteristics of the fertilizer.
Classification of fertilizers by origin and production process
According to this classification, fertilizers are usually divided into 3 main groups:
- Organic fertilizers: Leaves of fertilizers are made from substances of natural origin (without industrial processing): Phosphoric powder, green manure, rotting manure, etc.
- Chemical fertilizers: These are fertilizers that have been industrially processed. Such as: Urea fertilizer, fused phosphate fertilizer, NPK compound fertilizer…
- Microbial fertilizers: Fertilizers are fertilizers applied science and technology to fertilizer production. In the manure, microorganisms are introduced into the manure to improve the soil microflora to provide better nutrition. At the same time, it solves a number of problems such as: Providing antibiotics to prevent pests and diseases, stimulating the growth of plants. Depending on the type of microorganism, different types of microbial fertilizers are created: symbiotic nitrogen-fixing symbiotic fertilizers, phosphate-dissolving microbial fertilizers, free nitrogen-fixing microbial fertilizers…
The big difference between them is the origin, not the difference in nutritional composition.
Classification of fertilizers according to the method of application
In addition to classification by origin, fertilizers can be classified in many different ways. Typically based on how to fertilize.
– Apply through the roots: These are fertilizers that are applied directly to the soil or into the water. Fertilizers provide nutrients to plants through their roots.
– Foliar fertilization: Are fertilizers used to be irrigated, or sprayed directly on leaves, stems or watered at the base. Plants absorb nutrients through the leaves.
Classification by physical state
This is a classification based on the physical state of the stool. And it is divided into 2 main categories:
- Liquid fertilizer: Fertilizer in the form of a solution is often used to spray on leaves and stems.
- Solid fertilizer: fertilizers in the form of compounds, pellets or crystals and powders
Sort by nutritional composition
This is also a way of classifying fertilizers used by many people. Based on nutrient composition, fertilizers are divided into 3 types:
- Macronutrients: This is a fertilizer containing macronutrients that provides plants with an absorbable form. These compounds include nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K).
- Middle stool: This type of fertilizer contains intermediate compounds that provide plants. Intermediate compounds include: calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sulfur (S), effective silicon (Si).
- Micronutrients: Like the above fertilizers, this fertilizer provides micronutrient compounds in a form that is easily absorbed by plants. This compound includes: boron (B), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), zinc (Zn).
Classification according to fertilizer composition
Based on fertilizer composition, we divide into 2 main groups:
– Single stool: This is an inorganic fertilizer that contains only one macronutrient (nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium) in its composition.
– Mixed fertilizers: This fertilizer contains 2 or more macroelements or at least 1 macroelement combined with 2 intermediate elements with chemical bonds.
Classification by compound
Based on compounds, fertilizers are divided into 2 types:
Inorganic manure: This type of fertilizer is produced from natural minerals or chemicals and contains one or more macronutrients, intermediates and micronutrients.
Organic fertilizers: Organic fertilizers are fertilizers produced from organic raw materials.
The effect of fertilizers in farming
In fact, there are many factors that affect the yield of crops such as weather, soil, plant varieties, water, etc. In which fertilizers play an extremely important and indispensable role in cultivation.
Plants when fully fertilized will achieve high efficiency:
- Keep plants lush and healthy.
- Increases soil fertility
- Increase crop yield and quality of agricultural products.
- Provides nutrients needed for plant growth
- Reasonable and balanced fertilization will help increase crop productivity, develop well, limit pests and diseases, and improve the quality of agricultural products.
Fertilizer is the main source of nutrients for plants through the roots of the plant, playing a very important role in determining the yield of the plant.
In addition to the general advantages of using fertilizers, each type of fertilizer provides multi- and intermediate-microelements for plants. These elements, although used by the plant in small amounts, are essential for the growth of the plant.
Some causes of fertilizer loss
Using fertilizers helps to achieve high yields in crops. However, the plants cannot use up all the fertilizer after application. A large part of the fertilizer will be lost, making it impossible for plants to absorb
Here are some causes of fertilizer loss in use:
- Evaporated: Fertilizer evaporation can be caused by chemical reactions, microorganisms.. Especially for fertilizers sprayed on leaves.
- Washed out: The amount of fertilizer leached depends on rainfall, soil texture, topography, and type of fertilizer used. In case of heavy rainfall, poor soil structure, sloping terrain without cover will make the fertilizer easily washed away.
- Hold on tight: Fertilizers when applied to the soil can be trapped so that the plants cannot absorb them.
From these causes of fertilizer loss, farmers should use measures to reduce fertilizer loss and avoid fertilizer waste without high efficiency.
What are the effects of fertilizers on the environment?
In addition to the effects of fertilizers on crops, the use of fertilizers also has a significant impact on the environment.
- Excessive fertilization will cause excess fertilizer in the soil, especially inorganic fertilizers. Toxic substances in fertilizers will follow the water source to penetrate deep into the soil, polluting the soil and water sources
- Pollution from fertilizer processing plants. Due to rudimentary processing technology, wastes released into the environment are not properly treated, causing odors, polluting water and soil sources, and greatly affecting human health.
- Today, too much fertilizer is applied in cultivation, causing great harm to the value and quality of crops, causing harm to users.
- The amount of fertilizer lost is washed away by water, easily causing water pollution. A small amount of evaporation causes air pollution
Excessive use of fertilizers and improper fertilization causes a lot of bad effects on the environment. People should know how to use fertilizers rationally, combine many types of fertilizers together, use in appropriate doses to avoid causing loss, pollution and cost.
One of the core solutions to this problem is to use organic fertilizer. This helps to provide nutrients to the soil and plants properly.