Eggplant is a very familiar crop in Vietnam. Eggplant fruit used for processing such as baking, stir-frying, cooking … is a very popular dish. Eggplant belongs to the Solanacea family, the same family as tomatoes and peppers. Techniques for growing eggplant There are many notable points. We invite you to refer to the article for more information on this topic.
Eggplant has many varieties, the fruit has many different shapes and colors, such as round and flat fruit, short round, long round; color from blue to green with white stripes, light purple, dark purple… Weight of each fruit varies from 15 grams to 400 grams. In the current trend of countries and Vietnamese farmers, F1 hybrids are often preferred because of their good resistance to pests and diseases, high and stable yields, and high fruit uniformity.
Usually suitable for planting in Winter-Spring, Spring-Summer and Summer-Autumn crops of the year (south, western). However, if you plant the autumn-winter crop, you should choose high, well-drained soil (because this crop rains a lot, the trees are prone to waterlogging).
Preparing the land for planting
Eggplant soil must be well drained and plowed. The lowland should be high, such as in Tien Giang, Long An, An Giang, … Eggplant can be grown in alluvial soil along the river, sandy clay, sandy loam soil, … However, the soil is not alkaline. If the pH is low, lime should be applied to increase the pH.
Requires seeds to sow about 7 – 12g (depending on the size of large and small seeds) to plant for 1,000m2, the seeds need to be soaked, the seeds begin to germinate and sow in the pot. Eggplant seeds from soaking to start germinating about 50 – 70 hours. The most suitable annealing temperature is from 25-30oC.
Composition of soil, normal potting fertilizer in the ratio: 2 soil + 1 manure + 20% rice husk ash.
The sandy soil mixed with meat uses a smaller proportion of rice husk ash. This mixture must be sieved (sifted) thoroughly to remove debris or large lumps of soil so that the seeds are easy to germinate.
The seedling time in the pot is about 15-20 days after sowing, then planting.
Planting distance and density
Depending on the variety and season, if the variety is low and the canopy is narrow, the planting arrangement is thicker. Average distance:
a) In the rainy season: rows 1 – 1.2m apart, trees 0.7m apart from trees on rows. Density 1,200 – 1,400 plants/1,000m2
b) In the dry season (sunny): double rows are 1.2m apart, rows of double rows are 0.6m apart and trees are 0.7m apart (crocodile fangs). Density of 1,600 trees/1,000m2.
How to grow
Before planting seedlings in the field, it is necessary to spray a round of insecticides. Choose in the cool afternoon to plant. Place the seedling in the ground so that the top of the potting soil is level with the top of the bed. If placed too deep, the tree will grow poorly, too dry, the tree will easily fall because the roots are not firmly rooted in the early stages.
After planting 2-3 days, it is necessary to replant the dead plants due to broken roots or other reasons when planting. It is necessary to review and stomp 2-3 times to ensure the density of plants in the field.
Depending on the type of soil, the season, and the irrigation method (permeable irrigation, sprinkler irrigation, watering with a lotus bud), the number of times a week is different, but the ultimate goal is to provide enough water for the plants. If possible, avoid watering to wet the leaves. During the care process, it is necessary to observe soil moisture, lack or excess of water, making plants grow poorly and difficult to set fruit, easy to drop flowers.
Fertilization techniques for growing eggplant
Fertilizer for eggplant: Depending on good or bad soil, the amount of fertilizer can be increased or decreased, below is the average amount of fertilizer for 1 hectare of eggplant:
Manure: 20-30 tons
Superphosphate/microbiological phosphorus: 300 – 500 kg
NPK: 600 – 800 kg
Urea: 200 kg
Potassium: 250 kg
Fertilizer for eggplant: Apply all manure + all phosphorus + 200 kg NPK + 50 kg Potassium (if using agricultural mulch). Or whole manure and phosphate fertilizers (if no mulch is available).
Top dressing for eggplant: Divide the remaining amount of fertilizer 4-6 times, bury the fertilizer in the soil so that the fertilizer does not evaporate and wash away.
Between top dressings and during harvest, foliar fertilizers can be sprayed. Foliar fertilizers such as Micracle – Gro, Yogen, Risopla II… can be used according to the concentration stated on the label.
Pest control when growing eggplant
Some of the main pests and diseases when growing eggplant:
Soil worms, nematodes: Treat the soil before planting with Basudin 10H on the sowing hole, or after transplanting around the base.
Green caterpillars: Use Karate,… spray when the worms are young, combine to kill worms and eggs with
Group of suckers: Thrips, green planthoppers, spiders: Actara, … according to the recommended concentration
Charming Worms: Ofunack, Triggard, SK99, Dragon, Pyrinex in the early morning.
Plant death diseases: Coc 85, Topsin, Polygam, Vanicide, Hexin, Luster watering the roots when the field is just starting to get sick, combined with uprooting and burning diseased plants.
Powdery mildew on fruit: Polygam, Kumulus, Dithane – M45, Derosal, Topsin, Sulox, Thio-M, Dipomate sprayed early when the tree is newly infected, can be sprayed when the weather is favorable for disease development such as heavy rain. , fog, alternating rain and sun, combined with pruning to remove diseased fruit. At the same time, prune branches, old leaves, drain water, rub scrubs, stretch strings to reduce moisture in the field.
Harvest eggplant plants
From 50 to 60 days after sowing can be harvested. Once every 3-4 days. Combine and remove the borer fruits.
We hope that with the content of the article we share. You will better understand the standard eggplant growing techniques to achieve the desired yield. Thank you for your interest in following the article.