The current model of eel farming is interested by many households because it provides a stable source of income. However, before we get to work, eel farming techniques It’s always something people are interested in. So why don’t you take some time to read more about this topic in the content below?
Types of eel farming
Raising eels in cement tanks or tarpaulin ponds
This model is the model with the highest economic efficiency, because the eel grows quickly because it does not change its inherent natural habitat. The construction tank should be built half floating and half sinking with a height of about 1m. Ponds can be built with cement or bamboo poles and covered with canvas, then soil is added.
Raising eels with water hyacinth
This form of farming also brings economic efficiency, but the selling time is longer than that of land farming from 10 to 15 days. The point of interest of this model is that we can make use of the old pigsty and spread the canvas to raise or spread the canvas in the earthen pond. It is not recommended to spread the tarpaulin on the ground like in the soil method because the high temperature can cause heat shock and death of the eels. It is necessary to create a drainage pipe with a hole smaller than the body of the eel so that when changing the water, the eel cannot come out.
Raising eels with nylon rope
This is a simple model but also very effective. But the point to note is that when stocking, the eels raised by this model must be tamed first. If the eels are brought from the land farming model, the eels will easily get sick and stop eating.
Feeding Eels with Straw
This is the traditional way, but people need to pay attention that the straw must be soaked for a long time and then rinsed and drained until the straw is out of color. Ponds were also built as a model for raising eels in nylon rope.
Eel farming combined with worm farming
This is the farming method of Shanghai – China. Cow dung is put into beds like potato beds, to avoid the cow dung from being lost, we can use bricks and tons of lotus seeds between the beds. Then drop the earthworms in, after the worms develop, drop the seed eels in. This farming method also brings economic efficiency because there is no need to invest in care. But the rearing time is very long because the worms do not reproduce enough for the eels to eat. It is possible to combine feeding with artificial food.
Methods of improving eel ponds
- Drain the water in the pond, clear the grass around the pond, dredge the pond bottom mud, rebuild the pond bank to make sure, milk returns to the supply and drainage sewers.
- Use powdered lime to spread evenly throughout the bottom and edge of the pond to kill all pathogenic bacteria and regulate the pH of the pond water, the amount of lime applied from 10 -15 kg / 100m2. After liming, dry in the sun for 1-2 days for all pathogens to die, proceed to supply water to the pond to reach 0.5 – 0.8 m.
- The water taken into the pond must be clean, unpolluted by industrial, agricultural and domestic waste, with a screen at the drain to prevent all kinds of garbage from entering the pond to limit pathogens and purify the pond water.
- Drop the water hyacinth into the pond to cool the eels.
Selected eel breeds must have bright colors, healthy, uniform size, no scratches, no deformities.
If eels are caught naturally by electrocution or using decoys, this eel is very difficult to raise, the survival rate is very low. Eels with sizes from 20 to 30 fish/kg, it takes 3-4 months to harvest. For eels from 30-40 fish/kg, the rearing time is from 4-5 months. Eels from 40 to 60 heads/kg, the rearing time is from 5 months or more.
Currently, the source of eel seed is artificially produced a lot in the southern provinces. However, the selling price is still very high and depends on the size of the breed. When raised with this source of eels, after 6 months, they can reach commercial size and harvest.
Food for eels can include: snails, shrimps, trash fish or fish heads, fish intestines bought at markets, by-products of slaughterhouses. In addition, it is possible to feed eels with bran, corn, potatoes, beans, etc., mixed with the main food of the eel and fed.
The amount of food for eels in the first stage is from 3 to 4% of body weight, then gradually increase the amount of food to 7%. But can be based on the amount of excess food that increase or decrease the food accordingly.
For hatcheries of the farm, the eels are domesticated with 30% pellets, can soak catfish pellets in water to soften and grind with fish or snails and then feed the eels. In addition, it is necessary to add cotton powder (or glue powder) to bind the food so as not to drop food scales when the eels eat. At the same time, it is necessary to add blood powder, vitamin C and a special premix for eels to help eels grow faster. Feed the eels around 5pm – 8pm. Because eels often eat at night and should be submerged in water (underground).
Diseases and how to prevent them
Eel is a very healthy species, rarely sick. If the water source is always clean, the eel farming is guaranteed to be successful.
Due to the high density of eel farming, the eels are wrapped around each other, the mucus is secreted into the water, fermenting, the viscosity increases, causing the water temperature to increase, and the oxygen content to decrease. The eel’s head swelled up, the eel died en masse. For the model of raising eels in plastic pipes or nylon strings, this is often the case.
Prevention: If you see this phenomenon, you need to thin the tank and let clean water flow continuously into the tank for 2-3 hours. Then stop rinsing, mix 1 ml of Iodin + 3 ml of Bio For Fish for 1 m3 of water. Soak for 3 hours and then drain, put in clean water. Then use 7g of vitamin C/1 m3 of water to splash into the tank overnight and then change the water.
Due to parasites, bacteria attach to the wound due to abrasion.
Symptoms: On the eel’s body appears red round marks, the eel swims abnormally.
Prevention: Take the eels to a separate tank and soak the eels in salt water with a concentration of 0.5%, then disinfect the whole tank with Water Fresh according to the manufacturer’s dose. Use 3 g Amoxilin/ 1 kg of feed, feed continuously for 3 days.
Mycosis fungal disease
Caused by parasites, cotton-shaped fibers can be seen clinging to the eel’s body to absorb nutrients.
Prevention: Soak the eel in 5% salt water for 10 minutes, then release it back into the tank. It is recommended to use Bioxid For Fish to disinfect the tank every day.
Worm infections (helminths)
Because eels eat raw food, they are often infected with worms. We have to periodically deworm the eels every 3 weeks. Antihelminthic drugs for fish and dosage according to the manufacturer.
Because leeches stick to the eel’s head, it destroys tissues and sucks blood, making the eel weak to eat and bacteria to enter, causing inflammation, affecting growth.
Prevention and treatment: Use copper sulphate solution 2.5g copper sulphate/25 kg of water to soak for 5-10 minutes.
Caused by intestinal parasites, the nematodes are white, about 1 cm long, the head attaches to the mucosa, destroying tissue, forming cysts, causing inflammation of the intestines, red swelling. If the parasites on the intestines are large, the eel is weak, the anus is red and swollen, and it will die.
Prevention and treatment: can be treated with Bio Benzol and prevented by Bio Green Cut with a dose of 1 liter/1,000 m3 of water) need to kill pathogens, parasitic larvae before changing water.
Hopefully with the information we share, you will be able to design your own eel farming model and ensure the correct implementation of eel farming techniques to bring high income.