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Sharing New Methods of Dairy Cow Breeding Techniques

Currently, dairy farming is having many strong developments in our country because it is one of the professions with high economic efficiency and sustainability. However, because most of the livestock production facilities are at household scale, applying traditional breeding methods, there is no clear process, so the productivity is not high and it is easy to pollute the environment. Disease outbreaks will cause great economic losses to farmers. Therefore, the application Dairy farming techniques Modern technology not only minimizes economic loss, but also helps increase livestock productivity by 10-20%. For more information on this topic, do not miss our article.

Choose dairy cow breed

When selecting breeding cows, choose healthy and disease-free cows based on the following criteria:

Appearance: the cow has a well-proportioned appearance, the udder is wide, even, soft, the head is light, and the four legs are strong.

Weight: from 450-500kg for 3-4 year old Dutch purebred cows; 350-390kg for 3-4 year old Ha-Viet cows; 280-320kg for 3-4 year old Sind crossbred cows.

Genetics: good parent breed, high milk production, long and healthy lactation.

Milk capacity: milk yield of 8-10kg/day (Ha-Viet cows) and 6-8kg/day (Sind crossbred cows); The lactation cycle ranges from 270-300 days (Ha-Viet cows) and 140-170 days (Sind crossbreed cows).

The selection of breeding dairy cows plays an important role in determining the milk yield
The selection of breeding dairy cows plays an important role in determining the milk yield

Methods of detecting estrus and mating for cows

Symptoms of estrus: cows eat less, reduce milk, often jump on the back of other cows or let other cows jump. The estrus period lasts 18-36 hours, and after calving 20-30 days, the breed returns. The best time to breed is in the second estrus ie 45-60 days after calving (the estrus cycle is 21 days). For cows with high milk production, it is recommended to breed in the 3rd or 4th month to prolong the milking cycle.

Breeding method:

  • Direct insemination: use this method only for mature heifers of small weight or difficult to mate.
  • Artificial insemination: a method that allows selection of breeds in accordance with breeding requirements, suitable for mother cow breeds to produce good quality calves.

Nurturing calves from 1 day old to adult cows

  • Calves from 0-7 days old

Dip your finger in the milk and then put it in the calf’s mouth for the calf to suck. Slowly pull your finger down into the bucket of milk, the sucking calf will suck the milk into its mouth. Practice about 3-4 times, the calves will automatically drink milk from the bucket. Milk ration for newborn calves is from 5-6 kg/day (depending on calf weight).

  • Calves from 8 to 120 days old

In addition to using milk as the main food, it is necessary to train calves to eat grass and bran to develop rumen early. 4-month-old calves about to enter the weaning stage must add protein, trace minerals and macronutrients to the diet. Milk ration for calves from 8-30 days old is 6kg, 30-60 days old is 4kg, 60-90 days old is 2kg, 90-120 days old is 1kg.

  • Calves are weaned to death

Calves aged 4-12 months and calves were fed mixed bran concentrate (16-18% protein) from 0.6-0.8kg/head/day and 1-1.2kg/head, respectively. /day. Supplements include bile, salt and urea. Forage is grass, straw fed freely.

Each stage of development of dairy cows will have certain standards of care
Each stage of development of dairy cows will have certain standards of care

Nurturing milking cows

Requirements: milking cows must be cows with high milk production, early estrus and good health.

Regulations on milking:

  • Squeeze on time and fix the spinner.
  • Keep the milking place quiet, do not smoke, do not cause discomfort to cows.
  • Milking workers before milking must wash their hands clean, cut nails short, wear masks and not have infectious diseases.
  • The barn and milking equipment must be clean and hygienic.
  • High yielding cows are milked first, middle and low yielding cows are milked later. Cows without mastitis are milked first, cows with mastitis are milked later. In a cow with mastitis, the non-inflamed udder is first, and the inflamed udder is posterior. Inflammatory cow’s milk is not used.
  • Cow’s milk within the first 10-15 days contains many antibodies and high nutritional content, so it should only be given to calves, not included in commercial milk.
  • Do not use milk taken from cattle recently injected with antibiotics within 24 hours, cattle vaccinated with anthrax vaccine within 15 days.

The technique of raising dry cows

Milking cows to the 7th month of pregnancy are required to dry up milk in one of two ways:

  • For cows with a yield of 4-5 liters or more: reduce the number of milking times a day from 2 times to 1 time / day or 1 time every 2-3 days, change the milking time and the sequence of milking operations.
  • For cows with a yield of 2-3 kg/day: milk once every 3-4 days, then let the milk digest. After the lactation period, feed the cows with the normal diet again.

Hygiene and disease prevention for cows

Food hygiene: food must be clean, not rotten, sour, moldy, clean drinking water, not using water with disease sources.

Body hygiene: regular bathing and periodic spraying of tick killers for cows. Detoxify once a month with quicklime, Formol or Sue.

Dairy cows need to be cleaned regularly to eliminate pathogens
Dairy cows need to be cleaned regularly to eliminate pathogens

Common diseases in calves: diarrhea syndrome, roundworm, lungworm, coccidiosis, bronchopneumonia, umbilicus, etc.

Common diseases in cows: foot-and-mouth disease, rumen distention, heatstroke, mastitis, poisoning, pericarditis, blood-borne parasites, worms, liver flukes, pasteurellosis, bovine tuberculosis …

Note: Vaccinate a number of diseases in cows such as bacteremia, foot-and-mouth disease and periodically check for diseases, especially infectious diseases that are easily spread to humans.

Waste management and treatment

Solid waste is put into the compost pit, then sold or used as fertilizer for crops.

Liquid waste (water for bathing the barn) will be put into the biogas system for treatment and then used to irrigate pastures or use for other purposes.

The waste treatment process needs to be technically correct
The waste treatment process needs to be technically correct

We hope that the content of the article we share will help farmers gain more experience in raising dairy cows. Wish the farmers success with the improved dairy farming model. Thank you for your interest in following the article.

Emilia Chaney
Emilia Chaneyhttps://agrisearch.net
My name is Emilia Chaney. I'm a social girl from Romania with a big smile and 3 passions: Agriculture, Travel and Social Media. I try to make this blog practical, full of great advice and inspiring ideas.

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