Avocado is a crop with high economic value that is chosen by many gardeners as a key crop in economic development, hunger eradication and poverty alleviation. In order for avocado trees to grow with high productivity and quality, you need to understand, techniques and farming processes. In this article, AgriSearch.net will send it to you. avocado tree planting techniques achieve high economic efficiency. Please take some time to follow the article with us!
How to grow avocado tree
Previously, the main method of growing avocado trees was sowing seeds. However, this method has some disadvantages as it takes a long time to produce fruit, the ratio of fruit to tree is not high, and there is often a dissociation between mother plants and seedlings, so the quality is not stable.
Currently, the most popular and effective propagation method is the wedge grafting method. Seedlings retain all the genes of the parent plant. The tree grows quickly and bears fruit throughout the years. When planting, choose to buy healthy, pest-free seedlings to plant that will help the tree to grow best later.
Requirement of soil conditions
Avocado trees do not tolerate waterlogging, so the first avocado soil is loose and well-drained. A soil pH of about 5-7 is suitable. If intercropping with some other plants, it is necessary to add lime powder. For low-lying areas, it is necessary to raise beds for plants before planting.
Planting time and planting density of avocado
Avocados can be planted at the beginning of the rainy season. However, if you want to plant in the dry season, it is necessary to provide adequate water for the tree because the avocado tree requires quite high water.
Avocado is a tree that can be intercropped with some other trees to increase economic value on an area of land. The type of tree suitable for intercropping with avocado is coffee. If intercropping, the distance between each tree is 8m. If planting alone, the distance of 6m is most suitable.
Soil preparation and avocado planting techniques
Prepare soil for avocado planting with a minimum size of 50x50x50cm and each hole needs to be lined with about 10kg of rotting manure, 0.5kg of Phosphorus and an amount of lime to disinfect soil pathogens.
When the soil has been prepared 1 month before, you proceed to plant avocados. When planting, gently tear the potting soil and place it in the hole dug earlier. Lightly compress the soil around to fix the pot and guide the plant upright. Planting seedlings should not be planted deeply, but just letting the potting surface level with the ground is enough.
Avocado is a plant that requires moderate watering. When planting is complete, it is necessary to water it and maintain the amount of water after planting until the next 3 months. Watering once every 3 days will help the plant grow best.
In the 2nd year onwards, the tree has grown strongly, the roots have penetrated deeply into the soil, but still need to add soil in the dry season, the flowering and fruiting period.
Pruning and creating canopy for trees
If you grow avocado from a grafted tree, the tree will produce branches and canopy quite early and much. For gardens with intercropping coffee trees, each tree only lets one branch grow from the grafted bud to both accumulate nutrients to feed the tree and the tree does not have to compete for land area because it tends to grow vertically. When the tree is 1.5m high, you proceed to brake the top branches to make the tree horizontal branches.
With pure gardens, often cut off weak branches, branches showing signs of pests and diseases, leaving only small branches but bearing much fruit. Avocado is a tree whose branches are quite brittle and break easily.
Fertilize avocado trees
Depending on the age of the tree, fertilize the tree in batches of the year.
First year: After 1 month of planting, you periodically fertilize the tree 3 times in that year. Use NPK fertilizer (2:2:1) to apply 100g.
Year 2: You apply NPK fertilizer but increase the amount of fertilizer to 300g. In this year, divide about 4 times to fertilize the tree. Avoid fertilizing in the dry season, which will evaporate the fertilizer. When fertilizing, it is necessary to water immediately so that the fertilizer penetrates the soil.
From the 3rd year onwards: At this time, the tree has fully developed the canopy frame and leaves. Need to fertilize plants in 3 batches, each increase to 1kg of NPK . fertilizer
Attention when fertilizing: When the plants flower, stop fertilizing. If planting avocado interspersed with coffee, from the 3rd year onwards, reduce the amount of fertilizer to ½ to fertilize because the tree has enjoyed the amount of fertilizer from coffee.
Pest control for avocado trees
Some typical diseases in avocado trees that you need to pay attention to prevent.
This is a common disease in the 2nd year onwards. When the foliage has grown quite strong. The disease is characterized by a slightly rounded brownish appearance on the leaves. This disease can be spread through fruit and directly affects fruit quality. Spray some biological products to protect the leaves. Prune branches regularly to create ventilation for the tree.
This disease causes foliar nesting caterpillars. They make leaves into cocoons and nest in them. Insecticides should be used internally for spraying. If possible, before spraying, it is advisable to remove the leaf nests due to worms to increase the effectiveness of the drug.
In the rainy season this disease often appears. They penetrate and suck the sap of young fruit causing the fruit to rot and die. It is possible to use supracide, suprathion, bassa, etc. to spray against aphids when the appearance of aphids appears.
This easy rot disease is caused by a fungus called Phytophthora cinnamoni, in high-water soils, the fungus invades and damages the main root (the stake root), then the fungus spreads and destroys the whole root, causing the plant to die. .Can be used to spray on the roots with a dose just enough to eliminate pathogens. Regularly mulch with soil to make the soil more open to avoid waterlogging.
Avocado trees after planting to the 4th year begin to harvest the first crop. Grafted plants will yield faster than plants grown from seeds. The following years the tree will bear more fruit. The best time to pick fruit is in the morning.
Based on the color of the avocado skin, the grower decides when to harvest. Normally in our country avocados are harvested in July-August and off-season avocados are harvested in September-October every year. After harvesting, storing avocados in a cool place will help keep their freshness longer.
We look forward to the information that we share in this article. You will not have many questions related to avocado tree farming techniques. You can apply the information we share to your own avocado orchard. Thank you for your interest in following the article.