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Selecting plant varieties by high science and technology

In order to achieve the goal of applying high technology in agriculture, reaching 60-70% of the total agricultural production value of the whole city, HCMC. Ho Chi Minh City is gradually applying science and technology in all stages of the agricultural production process, especially the application of high technology in breeding and selection.

City Center for Biotechnology. Ho Chi Minh City

Ho Chi Minh City Biotechnology Center is one of the units participating in the implementation of key programs of the City and has implemented many research contents towards the application of biotechnology in breeding. Newly adapted to the climatic conditions of the Southern region, meeting production and consumption requirements, contributing to turning the city into a center of plant varieties for the Southeast and Southwest regions.

Some achievements have been achieved in research and put into practical applications.

1. Selection and propagation by method invitro for some promising flower, ornamental and medicinal varieties

The Center for Biotechnology has stored and preserved the genetic resources of many rare vegetable, ornamental, flower and medicinal plant varieties in order to effectively exploit the available genetic resources to serve the program. create new varieties. At the same time, the new seed production development center in the city. Currently, the center has collected:

  • 381 orchid varieties (including 145 wild orchid varieties)
  • 166 varieties of ornamental leaves
  • 124 varieties of flowers background
  • 26 varieties of roses
  • 110 varieties of medicinal plants

After a process of research and testing, giving results to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of varieties, the Center has selected and introduced new plant varieties with good adaptability, high yield and favored by the market to conduct. Mass propagation by in vitro method.

Currently, the Center has been conducting rapid multiplication of 21 Dendrobium orchids, 3 Phalaenopsis orchids, 6 forest orchids and 6 medicinal plant varieties. Special, The Center has applied the temporary immersion system (TIS) in the production of large numbers of seedlings of bellflower and phalaenopsis. This application not only contributes to increasing the multiplier by 1.5 times, but also shortens the incubation time by 3-5 times compared to the conventional agar culture.

The output of tissue culture plants is over 300,000 plants/year. The capacity to supply the market is about 80,000 – 100,000 trees/year.

2. Select and breed plant varieties with economic value and good adaptability to the climatic conditions of the Southern region.

The Center has implemented research and breeding activities of Dendrobium orchids and many varieties of fruit and vegetable crops such as cherry tomatoes, sweet peppers, cucumbers, etc. to meet the common goals of the above key programs. City area. The specific results are as follows:

Select to create hybrid orchid Dendrobium: The center has been granted a protection certificate by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development for 12 new hybrid orchid lines (BCH12-4, BCH12-10, BCH12-14, BCH12-15, BCH385-1, BCH385-5, BCH385-6, BCH 424- 1, BCH424-3, BCH424-4, BCH424-5, BCH88-1) according to Decision No. 169/QD-TT-VPBH, dated June 27, 2018; No. 236/QD-TT-VPBH, July 29, 2019.

These hybrid orchid lines have many outstanding advantages compared to commercial varieties in many aspects such as: less pest and disease infection, flowering ability, inflorescence length, number of flowers and especially long blooming time. long.

In the year 2018-2019, from 12 hybrid orchids that were granted a protection certificate by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, the Center has provided over 20,000 tissue transplant plants to serve to build a Dendrobium orchid production model associated with the program. new rural construction.

– Choose to breed cantaloupe: After selecting 15 lines of cantaloupe with purity over 90% on some key traits such as net density, fruit shape, fruit weight, crispiness, sweetness, the Center bred 05 hybrid melon combinations. F1 has prospects. In which, the hybrid combination BC231 has a yield equivalent to that of the control (reaching from 30-35 tons/ha). This hybrid cantaloupe keeps its leaves healthy and grows stably until the end of the crop thanks to its disease resistance. superiority: viral diseases, powdery mildew and rope death.

Choosing to breed cherry tomatoes: 9 pure cherry tomato lines with fruit quality equivalent to the control variety (HT144) were selected by the center. Simultaneously, 3 F1 hybrids were created with the ability to grow and develop normally in greenhouse conditions. These new varieties have many outstanding advantages such as: temperature tolerance from 35-45oC, resistance to viral leaf curl, bacterial wilt and yellow leaf disease. Individual yield is from 1.7 to 1.8 kg/plant, brix is ​​from 6.1 to 7.8, suitable for fresh eating and salad processing.

– Choosing to breed heat-resistant sweet peppers: The center has screened 37 individuals of the F5-F7 generations with many good characteristics suitable for selection requirements such as: fruit size, fruit shape, rind color and disease resistance..

– Choosing to breed female cucumber varieties: Since 2018, the Center has collected and planted 30 cucumber lines/varieties originating from the Netherlands, Israel, Russia, and Vietnam. Based on different morphological characteristics such as pod color, fruit length, weight, 1,011 individuals in the F3-F4 generation were selected.

3. Research on the application of biomolecular markers in genetic diversity assessment and purity determination

The Center for Biotechnology in Ho Chi Minh City has carried out the following studies: Applying molecular biomarkers to create virus-resistant orchids by RNAi gene transfer technology; creating pure lines of sweet pepper by haploid culture technique; creating virus resistant cucumber varieties by gene editing technology; selection of Panax ginseng with high saponin content by molecular markers. The Center has achieved some typical results as follows:

  • Establishing a gene transfer process for orchids (Dendrobium, Mokara)
  • Create a line of orchids DendrobiumSonia is resistant to viruses in conditions in vitro
  • Successfully cultured sweet pepper anthers
  • Completed the process of genetic analysis of clover by ISSR molecular markers.

The Center has established a database of DNA sequences of DNA barcode fragments. At the same time, analyzing and evaluating the genetic diversity of 41 species of Vietnamese forest orchids based on the existing orchid collection to assess the diversity of genetic resources for conservation and breeding. The results of genetic analysis show that the species discrimination level of barcode regions in order from low to high is rbcL<matK< ITSmatK.

In addition, the application of molecular markers SSR, SNP to determine the purity of cantaloupe and cherry tomato lines selected at the Center, initially screened some typical SSRs and SNPs on 10 cantaloupe lines. and 9 selected cherry tomato lines have the potential to be used in crossbreeding to combine many good traits.

4. Accelerate the application of high technology in plant breeding

In the southern region, Ho Chi Minh City is prioritized to develop into a center of production and supply of key varieties. The Center for Biotechnology of Ho Chi Minh City has developed an investment plan to research and create new varieties on the main objects of vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants, closely following the goals of the city’s key programs, in order to exploit exploit the available potential (equipment, human resources, ..). The Center strives to provide 6-10 hybrid orchid lines by 2020, 1-2 mutant bellflower lines, 1-2 F1 hybrid melon varieties, 01-2 F1 cherry tomato varieties; complete 2-3 technological processes to create new flower and leaf varieties by irradiation to cause mutations, gene transfer and sexual hybridization.
In order to achieve the set targets, the solutions that Ho Chi Minh City Biotechnology Center need to have are as follows:

  • Focus on improving the quality of human resources through sending staff to participate in courses to improve professional qualifications in high technology and biotechnology.
  • Encourage young staff to propose research topics on high-tech agriculture.
  • Focus on exploiting equipment and machinery for high-tech research.

Source: http://www.hcmbiotech.com.vn/

Emilia Chaney
Emilia Chaneyhttps://agrisearch.net
My name is Emilia Chaney. I'm a social girl from Romania with a big smile and 3 passions: Agriculture, Travel and Social Media. I try to make this blog practical, full of great advice and inspiring ideas.

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