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Part 2: Taking care of durian trees during the harvest period
My articles are based on personal experience and perspective, which may not be entirely correct. Everyone please refer to any ideas that are correct and good and apply them. If any ideas are not correct, I hope you will leave a comment below to help me.
1. Irrigation water
During this period, it is necessary to regulate water appropriately, create drought when making cotton for the plant, water sufficiently while flowering, when the plant begins to bud (crab’s eyes), proceed to push the buds out at the same time as the flowers so that the plant Does not shed strongly due to competition for nutrients when removing the pistil. 2 weeks after removing the pistil is the most important, so the amount of water should be just enough moisture (you water the previous afternoon, by 9 a.m. the next morning the soil will be dry).
You should not water too much at this stage, nor let the soil get too dry, as this will lead to the formation of a loose layer between the stalk and the young fruit, at which time massive fall will be unavoidable, even if you intervene, it will be very difficult to recover. Balanced as before. One thing to keep in mind is that the number of flowers and young fruits that fall at the base when the pistils are removed is the source of ethylene gas, which stimulates the flowers to fall even more. If possible, you should move it a little further away from the root if you see excessive physiological loss.
Every year, add 50-60kg of decomposed manure, powdered fertilizer or dry microbial organic matter to each tree stump to organically enrich the tree’s foundation. When the plant is preparing to bloom, add phosphorus and potassium rich fertilizer (organic fertilizer made from bone meal and banana) 2 weeks before the drought. When the leaves turn silky when they bud and decide to make cotton, it is time to create drought to make cotton.
This period must closely match the main local crop season, to combine many factors, the tree will flower more naturally and be less affected by adverse conditions. However, it is still necessary to prepare liquid fertilizers rich in protein (soybean liquid or fish protein) to spray when encountering unseasonal rains. This is to minimize the crab’s eyes from becoming black when encountering that situation.
When the plant flowers and the crab’s eyes sprout evenly, spray nitrogen-rich substances on the leaves and inflorescences to help the crab’s eyes develop well and stimulate buds to grow at the same time as the flowers. When the flowers bloom, the leaves turn old during this period, so providing nutrients through the leaves is the most effective. Balanced liquid nutrients are used at this time (usually I use a mixture of liquid cow or goat manure) provided through the leaves.
To support strong bean flowers, you can spray additional endogenous stimulants made from fermented plant juice to supplement Auxin or Gibbirellin to help make bean flowers better.
When the fruit is the size of a chicken egg, then we will increase the supply of nutrients through the root system. You should start with a small amount and gradually increase so that the plant does not suffer from fertilizer shock.
Preparations that help stabilize the environment are also used during this time to stabilize soil pH, avoiding the situation of continuous soil pH changes due to rain.
When the fruit is as big as a bowl, the rice-making stage begins, so add micronutrients from organic fermented vegetable liquid, kitchen ash, and sea salt (1-2kg/ha, diluted and watered evenly in the garden). This stage that determines the quality of the rice fruit only lasts for 25-30 days. You should use liquid fertilizers combining enzyme-rich GE types (banana GE, pineapple, aloe vera…) mixed with fish protein (or bean protein) and a balanced solution for continuous irrigation during this time.
Create the most favorable conditions for fruit to grow.
3. Pests and diseases
1.Green planthopper: When the tree buds when the crab’s eyes are just 5-7cm out, it is time to actively protect the buds so that the leaves can develop well, which is a prerequisite for growing fruit. Green planthoppers are the leading cause of damage to young shoots, so in addition to measures to help plants stay healthy, we must also prepare 3-color mushrooms and BT to prevent the planthoppers from overgrowing and have to intervene to protect them.
If the pressure is high, spraying 2 times continuously, 1 week apart when the leaves have just sprouted, will provide good protection. In addition, you can use neem oil, essential oils, and wood vinegar in combination to use alternately to enhance the desired effect.
2. Cotton borers and fruit borers: This type develops when the inflorescences are crowded together. Thick fruit clusters are stuck together in clusters, which is the place this type prefers the most. You can use 3 colors of BT mixture to prevent this type quite effectively. The stage when this type develops strongly is when the cotton is the size of a chopstick, when the flower is about to mature, the fruit is the size of a chicken egg, the fruit is the size of a bowl, and when the fruit bursts to its full size. Just keep an eye on these stages for effective prevention.
3. Diseases caused by fungi and bacteria: There are many types of diseases that affect us during this time if our environment is not stable or out of balance. Fungi include Fusarium, Phytophtora… Harmful bacteria on flowers that have just emerged or are close to blooming. This disease mainly causes male flowers to turn black, affecting fruit set.
The best way to prevent is to create a high, dry foundation system (level, high or low depending on the terrain) and add organic matter to create ventilation for the soil surrounding the tree canopy to help the tree roots breathe best. Low grasses such as purslane, bottlewort, small-leaf cowgrass, etc. will better support the system.
In addition, GE fermented herbal room sprays can be used very effectively. When you have a disease, you can use preparations containing Ketomium, Tricoderma, Penicilium, Streptomyces… to eliminate the disease when it is first detected.
It should be noted that these types of prevention are effective, but to eliminate diseases, in addition to microbiology, many other experiences must be applied to support. During the fruit-bearing stage, the tree is quite sensitive. You can use yeast to stabilize the substrate or use native IMO to supplement continuously, which also reduces many harmful factors.
When old fruit begins to fall off a tree, it means the fruit of that tree is old. Experienced gardeners can cut the fruit. Remember to use a gold-handled knife to tap the fruit and hear the sound to cut it. After cutting, leave it naturally for 3-5 days and the fruit will automatically ripen (only effective with old fruit. If young fruit is cut early, it is determined to be “bum”).
According to my experience, thin rice native varieties ripen within 90-95 days after pollination. As for Ri6, it is about 105-110 days. The longest monthong is 120-135 days and can be cut.
5. After harvest
You should prune dead branches and regrow branches in the trunk and provide nutrients and root stimulation for the tree to recover quickly. After harvesting, the tree must be pushed to produce 2-3 new shoots. Only then can productivity and quality be maintained for the next crop.
Wishing you success when putting fruit on the tree. If you have any further contributions, please comment so we can discuss further.
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Hello from author Luan Vu.