Macadamia nuts are rich in nutrients and have a delicious fatty taste, so they are loved by many people. However, this plant is not easy to grow. This is also the reason why macadamia nuts are so expensive. In order for macadamia trees to yield the desired yield, in addition to weather and soil conditions, planting techniques are also very important. To learn more about Macadamia tree planting techniqueslet’s follow the following content.
Summary of macadamia tree
Macadamia tree is native to Australia and has the scientific name Macadamai (belonging to the family Protaceae). This is a fruit tree containing abundant nutrients, especially oil (78%). Macadamia nuts have a delicious fatty taste and are a high-class, very popular food.
In Vietnam, Macadamia was first grown in Ba Vi and then replicated to Dack Lack, Lam Dong.
Macadamia tree is a woody, perennial tree (can be up to 60 years). However, the roots of Macadamia are quite shallow, with a wide canopy, so the ability to withstand rain is not good. Macadamia tree trunks can be up to 18m high with two common types: Macadamia nut shell and Macadamia nut shell.
Macadamia berries are round, green and turn brown when ripe. Macadamia shells will dry out and then crack by themselves when the harvest season comes. Meanwhile, macadamia nuts have a hard and thick brown shell and a milky white kernel.
The fruit is peach-shaped or round like a marble, when ripe, the rind turns from green to brown, and the dried pods crack. The seed coat is very hard brown, the kernel is milky white.
Techniques for growing macadamia trees
The best time to plant macadamia trees is the beginning of the rainy season. From May to August every month, the weather rains a lot, so the seedlings will be easier to adapt and not dry.
Unlike many other plants, macadamia trees need to be planted at the right density to grow well. Accordingly, in each planting method, soil conditions, area, etc., the density of macadamia plantation will be different. Usually trees will be planted in the following densities:
– 278 trees/ha with a density of 9m x 4m.
– 222 trees/ha with a density of 9m x 5m.
– Intercropping other industrial crops with 70 trees/ha at a density of 12m x 12m
The pit for planting Macadamia must ensure good drainage conditions and be dug on a thick, porous soil. The suitable pit size for planting macadamia trees is 50 x 50 x 50 (cm) or 80 x 80 x 80 (cm).
Normally, fertilizer for macadamia trees will be mixed according to the ratio of 5kg manure: 0.5 kg phosphorus: 0.5 kg lime. This part of fertilizer should be composted in the hole for about 1 month before starting to plant.
Not only Macadamia, with all plants, the selection of seedlings is extremely important. Good seedlings will have good disease resistance, fast growth. Accordingly, you should choose plants that are pest-free, green, sturdy, ….
Planting macadamia trees
To plant macadamia trees properly, we need to complete the following steps:
– Mix the part already in the hole one more time and then dig a small hole in the middle (about 30cm deep and about 20cm wide).
– Hold the gourd tightly with your whole hand, avoid breaking the gourd when tearing the bag.
Use a knife to split a part of the bottom of the pot and then make a slight incision from the bottom to half of the bag. Before cutting, check to see if the roots are bent or twisted to perform pruning.
– Gently put the plant in the planting hole and then fill it with soil and pull out the potting bag. The soil needs to be compacted enough for the plant to grow, but not too hard to avoid damaging the roots.
– Plug in a wooden pole with an angle of about 60 degrees and then tie the tree to keep the tree from being shaken by the wind and damaging the roots.
Caring for macadamia trees
Tree inspection and weeding
When the tree is planted about 30 days, we need to check if the tree is well adapted and correct if the tree is tilted or fell. The newly formed vines and young grass also need to be cleaned at this time.
Fertilize the tree
Fertilization of plants needs to be done properly:
– First year: In the first flowering year, we need to fertilize before flowering with NPK fertilizer. Accordingly, each stump needs about 100g of NPK and this top dressing needs to be done twice, about 50 days apart.
– Subsequent years: In the following years, plants need to be fertilized at the beginning of the rainy season and at the end of the rainy season. Each stump needs about 120g of NPK.
Manure: The larger the plant, the more manure. At least, each year Macadamia trees need to add 20 to 30 kg of manure.
When fertilizing, it is necessary to lightly dig the soil around the corner of the plant and fertilize, then reassemble the soil. The maximum depth of the fertilizer trench is 20cm and at least 30cm from the root.
After harvesting, it is necessary to prune the macadamia branches. This will make the tree more airy and less susceptible to pests.
Common diseases in Macadamia
Cases often have diseases such as:
– Diseases of flowers: flowers appear many dark spots and then wither or even fall. This disease is easy to develop in the rainy season. Can be prevented by planting trees far away and spraying more drugs Benomyl, Carbendazim, …
– Nodules on the peel: The peel of the macadamia fruit may have many dark yellow spots and gradually spread. This disease is caused by bacteria and can cause the peel to turn brown if overgrown. Cupric Hydroxide Cu(OH)2 can be sprayed for treatment.
– Body damage: This is a disease caused by a type of melasma, which is very dangerous. The disease can cause branches and leaves to wither and cause the plant to die. The disease can be prevented by using white paint mixed with Cupric Hydroxide Cu(OH)2 to paint the base of the tree. The height of the paint stain is about 35 cm is suitable.
Macadamia trees, if grown well, can bear fruit after 3 years of planting. After 10 years, the tree will give a more stable yield.
Macadamia harvest time falls from July to September. At this time, the round fruit begins to dry and crack and turn brown. It can be harvested by picking the fruit or by collecting the seeds that have fallen to the ground.
Note: The fruit after picking should be peeled within a day and then dried as quickly as possible.
Macadamia tree is a tree of stable economic value that can be harvested for a long time. If proper planting techniques are applied, macadamia trees will have high yields. In addition, you can also grow Macadamia with other industrial crops such as coffee, cocoa, … to give economic benefits.