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Growing tomatoes with media in a greenhouse

growing tomatoes in a greenhouse

Lam Dong province is the main tomato production area of ​​our country. In which, 99% of the tomato area is grown on land, outdoors. When planting by this method, it is difficult for farmers to control the yield and quality when it rains. The method of growing tomatoes with substrates in greenhouses is the solution that the province is aiming for.

The method of growing tomatoes in greenhouses is gradually being expanded in districts such as Duc Trong, Don Duong, Lac Duong and Da Lat city. This method solves the problems that tomato cultivation methods on land are facing such as: harmful diseases, low yield, unstable quality.

Currently, the method of growing tomatoes in greenhouses is the only solution to overcome the problems encountered when growing in the ground. The method of growing on the substrate has the following advantages: Overcoming wilt disease, and diseases in the soil, controlling nutrition, yield and high quality.

Growing tomatoes with media in a greenhouse

After the process of testing the tomato growing model on the substrate and visiting and learning the process of growing tomatoes on the substrate of Fresh Studio Company, Lam Dong Agricultural Extension Center has summarized and introduced to the farmers the process of growing tomatoes on the substrate. The process of growing tomatoes on the substrate is as follows:

1.Greenhouse:

In order to achieve maximum yield, a greenhouse for growing tomatoes on a substrate must ensure the following factors: Height from soil to gutter > 3.0 m, good bearing capacity, adequate light, ventilation .

2.Prepare the breed

AlikeAge (days)Plant height (cm)Root neck diameter (mm)True number of leavesTree status
Tomato22 – 2512 – 152.5 – 3.55 – 6The tree is healthy, not malformed, white roots, well developed tops, no signs of pest infection.
grafted tomatoes30 – 3512 – 152.5 – 3.55 – 6The tree is healthy, not malformed, skin grafts heal, white roots, well developed tops, no signs of infection.

3. Prepare growing medium:

Plant pots must have drainage holes, from 12-18 holes, size 22 x 40 cm.

The substrate used can be used from different types of substrates: smoked rice husks, coco peat, sawdust. Types of growing media are mixed together depending on the farmer’s experience and finances.

When using coir, make sure the coir has been treated to reduce the amount of sodium chloride and tannin. It is possible to check whether the coir has been treated or not by checking the EC (conductivity), if the EC of the medium is < 1.0 ms/cm, then this medium is suitable for growing plants.

Refer to the growing medium of coconut fiber for growing tomatoes

Note: for sawdust, use only sawdust from rubber trees or dead sawdust growing mushrooms (abalone mushrooms).

Through the actual testing process, it is shown that currently the most effective medium for tomato plants is coir and rice husks with a ratio of 1:1 or using 100% clean coir.

4. Planting trees:

For tomato plants, growing on a substrate should leave 01 stem per tree. Can grow from 01 to 02 plants in one pot. If you plant 2 plants in one pot, you can save the cost of the substrate but require a stricter care and watering process.

If planting 2 trees/pot and leaving one branch/tree, the distance is as follows: Plant 2,600-2,700 trees/1,000 m2. Row spacing: 120 cm (from the center of the pot), 60 cm from the plant (from the center of the pot). If planting 1 plant in a pot, the row spacing: 120 cm (from the center of the pot). The tree is 30 cm away from the tree (from the center of the pot), the density is still guaranteed as above.

Planting density affects the photosynthetic capacity of tomatoes, thus affecting yield. In areas with good light intensity (Duc Trong, Don Duong), the greenhouse structure has little light blocking, the new plastic greenhouse should be planted with a density of 2,600 – 3,000 trees/1,000m2). In areas with low light intensity (Da Lat), the greenhouse structure covers a lot of light, and the greenhouse plastic is no longer new, the planting density is less.

The bags of media were watered before planting and mixed with the medium to moisten evenly, then watered with EC = 2.0 ms/cm, pH = 5.8 to prepare the next day for planting. Before planting, the seedlings should be left out in the garden for 1-2 days so that the seedlings can get used to the conditions in the greenhouse and plant them in the cool of the afternoon.

  1. Take care of

– Fertilizer: Bucket A: 100 liters – Bin B: 100 liters. Density: 150 times

Phase 1 (30 days): From planting to fruiting (EC = 2.2 – 3.0)

stool nameWeight (kg/barrel)Bin
Kristalon Brown10.50A
Yara Liva Calcinit12.00REMOVE
Krista MAG1.5REMOVE

Phase 2 (45 days): The stage of fruit formation EC = 2.3 -3.0.

stool nameWeight (kg/barrel)Bin
Kristalon Brown9.00A
Yara Liva Calcinit13.50REMOVE
Krista MAG3.00REMOVE
Krista KY3.75REMOVE

Stage 3 (after the end of phase 2): Beginning of harvest to end of harvest (EC = 2.5 – 3.0)

stool nameWeight (kg/barrel)Bin
Kristalon Brown12.00A
Yara Liva Calcinit15.00REMOVE
Krista MAG3.00REMOVE
Krista KY4.50REMOVE

The amount of fecal water entering and leaving the pot was collected and measured EC, pH daily, time of measurement: every morning before the start of a new cycle.

Attention: Output EC – Input EC > 0 and = 1.0, there is a possibility of salt deposition in the medium, need to increase the amount of irrigation water or decrease the EC input. Output EC – Inlet EC 6.0 then use acid HNO3 To reduce the input water pH, pH < 5, use KOH to increase the pH.

– Pruning branches:

Leave 2 branches/tree: keep the first sub-branch, prune all remaining branches.

For 1 branch/tree: pruning off secondary branches, keep only one main branch, pruning time: weekly pruning, preferably when the side branch (side shoot) is less than 10 cm in length. If the side branch is too large, it will affect the growth of the tree.

Leaf pruning: in order to balance between stem development and reproductive growth. To tIncrease the ventilation for the garden, at least 12-14 leaves/stem, SMaximum leaf stain per pruning is 3 leaves.

6.Prevention of pests and diseases

Pests:

Inspect planted gardens for early detection and timely spraying, and use long-acting draining drugs for timely prevention. 03 types of serious harmful insects are: Bed bugs; Arrange; Red spider, need to prevent as follows:

  • Thrips alternately use one of the drugs with the active ingredient Abamectin (Silsau 1.8, 3.6 EC); Imidacloprid (Admire 200 OD).
  • Red spiders alternately use one of the drugs with the active ingredient Azadirachtin (Agiaza 0.03 EC, 4.5 EC); Abamectin (Silsau 1.8, 3.6 EC); Rotenone (Limeter 7.5 EC).
  • Bed bugs alternately use one of the drugs with the active ingredient Imidacloprid (Admire 200 OD); Rotenone (Limeter 7.5 EC).

Diseases:

Pay attention to the diseases of root neck, downy mildew, bacterial green wilt, yellow wilt caused by Fusarium… Root neck rot:

Some pesticides are recommended (Iprodione, Metalaxyl, Thiophanate – Methyl). Dew mold: Alternately use some of the following drugs to prevent: Zineb (Tigineb 80 WP, Zineb Bul 80WP), Mancozeb 640g/kg + Metalaxyl M 40g/kg (Ridomil gold 68WP), Azoxystrobin 200g/l + Difenoconazole 125g/l (Amistar top 325SC); Mandipropamide 40g/l + Chlorothalonil 400g/l (Revus opti 440SC).

Bacterial wilt: The following drugs can be used Ningnanmycin: (Ditacin 8 L); Oxytetracycline 50g/kg+Streptomycin 50g/kg: (Miksabe 100WP); Oxytetracycline hydrochloride 55% + Streptomycin Sulfate 35%: (Marthian 90SP); Streptomycin sulfate: (BAH 98SP) Bacillus subtilis (Biobac 50WP). Yellow wilt caused by Fusarium: Can refer to some drugs to prevent yellow wilt disease on tomato plants such as: Chaetomium sp 1.5 x 106 cfu/ml + Tricoderma sp 1.2 x 104 cfu/ml (Mocabi SL); Cucuminoid 5% + Gingerol 0.5% (Stifano 5.5SL); Trichoderma viride (Biobus 1.00 WP).

7.Harvest:

Tomatoes will be harvested 70-75 days after planting. Fruits can be harvested fully or partially ripe, bunched or detached depending on the type of tomato and the needs of the customer, the transport needs of the trader.

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Source: http://khuyennong.lamdong.gov.vn/

Emilia Chaney
Emilia Chaneyhttps://agrisearch.net
My name is Emilia Chaney. I'm a social girl from Romania with a big smile and 3 passions: Agriculture, Travel and Social Media. I try to make this blog practical, full of great advice and inspiring ideas.

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