One of the key aquaculture occupations today is freshwater shrimp farming. The notes below about Freshwater shrimp farming techniques and effective shrimp care will help this industry want to compete in the agricultural market.
Choose a pond
Usually freshwater ponds, or saltwater ponds that can raise fish can be improved to raise shrimp. However, because shrimp cannot tolerate water without oxygen, when molting, they lie on the bottom of the pond, so it is necessary to choose a pond with clear, non-toxic or polluted water, abundant water, easy water supply and drainage, Less sediment, convenient transportation and power source.
The pond is relatively fertile, near the water source, can be regularly drained new water, or convenient power source, can increase the amount of oxygen by machinery and equipment can also be used for shrimp farming. However, if the pond is too fertile, shrimps often float their heads, and there is no water and electricity source, then it should not be chosen to raise shrimp.
Poisoning for the pond
Before stocking shrimp, the water in the pond should be drained, the pond bottom should be exposed to the sun, repaired the pond banks and sluices (doors) for water supply and drainage, cleared of sediment and grass; Use a thorough disinfectant for the pond to eliminate harmful organisms for shrimp (the way to poison shrimp ponds is similar to that of freshwater fish ponds).
After 7-10 days of cleaning the pond, drain the water (note that it is necessary to install a filter screen at the water supply and drainage door to prevent harmful organisms from entering the pond).
Juvenile shrimp are weak, have poor swimming and foraging abilities, mainly eat zooplankton and aquatic molluscs; Therefore, more or less natural food in the pond will directly affect the survival rate and growth rate of shrimp. Therefore, after clearing the pond, it is necessary to fertilize 0.3-0.45kg of silage/m2 of pond manure, or apply 2-4g of nitrogen fertilizer and 0.2-0.4g of phosphate/m3 of water to nourish. Plankton in the pond makes the pond water greenish-brown, or yellow-green. Then see the water quality to fertilize appropriately.
If freshwater ponds are used to raise saltwater shrimp, the salinity of the water must be adjusted to a density of 1.001 and maintained until the shrimp mature to ensure the survival rate of the postlarvae after stocking into the pond. Adjust pond water salinity by: removing 11g of 17%o seawater for every m3 of water.
To raise shrimp, you have to make the water color in the pond, too cloudy water will make the shrimp unable to survive. The most effective soil coloring process is the use of microbial fertilizers. You can make your own compost, but it will take a lot of time. Professional freshwater shrimp farmers often go to the place to buy microbiological fertilizers to use. Wait until the water is clear to about 40 cm from the surface.
The next part of preparation is the fan, every shrimp pond must have a fan to provide oxygen. This part we will talk about in the shrimp care stage.
Choose shrimp varieties
In order to have a high-quality and effective shrimp export batch, it must be carefully selected from the seed selection stage. There are millions of shrimp seed from hatcheries, so how to choose?
Disease detection: No one is sure that the shrimp will be completely healthy, to know this you need to use measures to check. The best test solution is to use gene amplification reaction – PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). If you are a professional shrimp farmer, you will definitely buy yourself one of the disease detection machines such as PCR Pockit Xpress, Pockit Micro, Kit.
Shrimp size: The size of shrimp breeding needs to choose the same ones, neither too big nor too small. The total size of shrimp must be correct for the age, then it is convenient to observe the development later.
Transporting shrimp: Maybe the shrimp farming site is far from the shrimp stocking area, so the transportation process must ensure safety factors. Absolutely do not let the shrimp water be too hot, too secretive, too cloudy, too cold… the best temperature should be equal to the temperature of the pond, it will be easy to adapt.
Proper stocking technique will increase the survival rate of shrimp. Should be released in the early morning, or cool afternoon. Should not be released in the rain or the pond environment is not suitable. Drop shrimp in the wind direction to easily disperse shrimp throughout the pond.
There are two ways to release shrimp as follows:
The newly transferred shrimp bags are placed on the pond surface for about 10-15 minutes to balance the temperature inside and outside the bag, then open the bag to let the shrimp swim out slowly. This method is applicable to cases where the difference in salinity of the water inside and outside the shrimp wrap is not more than 5%. It is necessary to build a bridge near the water surface so that the shrimp cover can be opened easily, avoiding wading into the pond water.
Usually applied to cases where the salinity of the water in the shrimp wrap and the salinity of the pond water differ by more than 5%. Newly transferred shrimp need a period of domestication right at the pond for shrimp to gradually adapt to the salinity of the pond and other environmental factors. It is necessary to prepare a large bowl with a capacity of about 20 liters and an aerator. Pour the shrimp bags into the bowl (about 10,000 shrimp/tank) and aerate, at the same time add pond water to the basin slowly so that the shrimp gradually acclimatize; After 10-15 minutes, slowly tilt the basin for shrimp to swim into the pond.
More attention should be paid to specific drop levels such as:
The stocking density will be about 5 to 10 shrimp seed/m2
The density of intensive farming will be about 25 to 40 shrimp seed/m2
Shrimp Care Process
This stage determines the output of shrimp ponds, so it is imperative to invest and pay attention.
– Food: Shrimp need to be supplemented with the best nutrients, regularly adjust the amount of food according to the increasing level of shrimp. To do it correctly you need to observe the size, how much or how little you eat.
– Meal: Every day, feed shrimp about 5 meals, but in those 5 meals, they must ensure enough nutrients, minerals, and vitamins for them to thrive. De Heus provides shrimp feeds suitable for each stage of culture, ensuring sufficient nutrition and minerals for shrimp to grow optimally and efficiently.
Water control: It is necessary to balance the pH of the water daily, weekly. Salinity, acidity, oxygen concentration, toxic gases, algae, bacteria, garbage… all these factors need to be compared and tested on a daily basis. A week you change the water 30% / time to ensure the health of shrimp.
– Make water color: Regularly make a microbiological ball to balance the color of the water, do not let the water be too cloudy or too clear.
– Protect shrimp: Shrimps are also very easily attacked by other creatures such as crabs, large fish, animals that attack from outside the pond. To ensure this, you should use a net to surround the shrimp.
– Water fan: This process must be done depending on the age of freshwater shrimp.
In the first 5 weeks, you only need to turn on the fan for 1 hour/day
The next 6-8 weeks increase to about 3 hours/day
The next 9-12 weeks increase to about 6 hours/day
From the next 13 to 15 weeks, increase to about 9 hours/day
From 15 weeks to harvest 11 hours/day
It can be seen that the larger the shrimp will need more oxygen, the process of turning on the water fan needs to be carefully noticed if they do not want to slow down their growth and affect the economic value of the farmers. Good luck.