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Experts Share Highly Effective Worm Breeding Techniques

Worm farming is a form of converting manure and agricultural by-products into nutrient-rich organic fertilizer for plants and animals. At the same time, it also contributes many benefits to society. However, due to lack of knowledge and experience, the worm farming model has not been replicated and exploited to its full potential. Therefore, in order to bring worm farming closer to farmers, in this article, we will continue to share it with you. Worm farming techniques The most complete and detailed.

Requirements for the barn

Should choose Southeast or South direction to ensure cool in summer and warm in winter. At the same time, make sure the barn is dry, clean, limiting and killing disease-causing bacteria.

The location of the barn must be high, cool, and ensure that it is not flooded when it is raining or in flood season.

In addition, people must also pay attention to the pH level in the soil. Worms are suitable with a neutral concentration from 6.5 to 7.5, if too salty or too acidic, the worms will go elsewhere or die.

The location of the cage must be kept away from harmful insects such as termites, snakes, geckos, mice, and anthills. For families who are raising swans, geese, chickens and ducks freely, it is necessary to pay close attention and take measures to prevent them from destroying.

The place to make the worm farm needs to be far away from hazards such as mice, ants, termites, etc.
The place to make the worm farm needs to be far away from hazards such as mice, ants, termites, etc.

Make sure the water used to irrigate the earthworms must be clean, unaffected by industrial wastes, and the water has a neutral pH of 6.5 – 7.5.

Material for making beds: bricks, wooden boards or banana trunks

The roof should use straw, palm leaves, coconut leaves, cover sheets, tarpaulin to keep the barn cool and airy.

The pillars inside the barn can be made of sturdy bamboo, wood or concrete poles.

Cage wall: people can use high-rise B40 wire mesh or build with bricks so that other animals or creatures do not harm earthworms.

Must have a height of at least 1m from the ground because if it is too low, it will be difficult to harvest, and if it is too high, it will be rained. The ideal distance is from 1.8 – 2m, of which 0.3 – 0.5m will sink into the ground, the pile above is about 1.5m high.

Breeding beds must have a height of at least 25-30cm, a width of about 1m, convenient for care.

The length of the rearing bed will depend on the livestock size of each household or farm. However, the ideal length should only be from 3 to 5m.

Breeding beds should be divided into small cages about 3m2 wide.

The beds for raising earthworms should be subdivided with a size of 3m2 for 1 bed
The beds for raising earthworms should be subdivided with a size of 3m2 for 1 bed

The floor of the cage is the place where worms live and develop, so it plays the most important role. The floor of the earthworm cage must meet the following standards: porosity, non-toxic substances, rich in nutrients, good moisture retention, no heat reaction, neutral pH from 6.5 to 7.5 .

People can use cow manure, chicken manure, pig manure … all kinds of manure in general to make the substrate. In addition, you can also use grass, corn stalks, fresh straw, coir, sawdust, shredded paper or old cardboard boxes. If using leaves, pay attention not to use poisonous leaves such as iron leaves, oval leaves, cassava.

Some ways to treat the barn substrate

Incubation in summer lasts from 30-40 days, winter from 60-70 days.

Materials for hot composting can be used as: chicken manure, cow dungbuffalo dung, goat manure, chicken manure; Fresh straw, corn stalks, peanuts, grass, sweet potato strings…; Probiotics EM 1%, lime powder… Agricultural by-products must be chopped, people can chop manually or use a lawn mower.

People proceed to incubate on compacted soil or cement floor, red brick floor with grooves to store the brewing water flowing out. The compost pile must be covered. The area needed for hot tempering is on average 3 – 5m2 for about 1 – 1.5 tons. The humidity of the compost pile is from 60 to 70%, the temperature is from 50 to 60 degrees Celsius.

After 7-10 days, check the temperature of the compost pile with sticks or bamboo sticks. Stick the bamboo in the middle for 10 minutes, hold the stick if it feels hot in your hand.

Check the humidity by holding a biomass from the compost pile, squeeze it tight and see if the water leaks through the fingers, the humidity reaches 50-60%. If the water flows a lot, it is too wet, if the broken biomass is too dry.

After 15 days of incubation, turn once and water. When the compost pile is brown, has no odor, is porous and moist, and the materials are rotting, they are put in the barn.

Similar raw materials are heated and added with a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, and do not use lime powder.

The compost pile is compacted, so the internal environment is anaerobic, microorganisms grow slowly, the temperature is not too high, only 30-35 degrees Celsius.

The incubation period is from 5 to 6 months. Although the time is long, the floor of the barn has better quality than hot incubation because it loses less protein.

The cold annealing method is quite popular
The cold annealing method is quite popular

Prepare the ingredients and pile them in the same way as the hot brew method. From 4-6 days the temperature can be up to 70 degrees Celsius. At this time, people water moist, compact and sealed. Can be used after 2 months.

  • How to spread the substrate for the worm farm

The floor of the cage must be flat, 10-20 cm thick. After spreading, use the watering umbrella to have a humidity of 60-70%.

Substance should be spread 2-3 days before stocking. For biomass worms, you may not need the substrate or spread it thinner.

Technology of raising earthworms

  • Choose worms like

You can buy one of the following two varieties:

Worms biomass: Both parents, baby worms, cocoon eggs and the environment in which the worms live. In which, worms account for about 3-5%.

Sperm worms: The rate of worms is over 80%. People should not choose 100% commercial worms for breeding.

Appropriate time of stocking: People should release in the cool early morning. Do not drop in the hot afternoon sun.

Stocking density with worms: you should maintain a density of 1-2kg/m2 (estimated at 8,000 – 10,000 individuals).

The best time to stock earthworms is early in the morning
The best time to stock earthworms is early in the morning

Stocking density with biomass worms: 15-20kg/m2.

How to release: With worms, people use their hands to gently drop them into each rearing bed. For biomass worms, stocking is done by spreading the biomass into the bed in a straight line in the middle of the bed plot or leaving the biomass in clusters in the middle of the bed.

After stocking, farmers have to use old sacks or torn mats, banana leaves and palm leaves to cover to help the worms quickly adapt to the environment.

To maintain 70% humidity, in the summer, people have to water 2-3 times/day. In winter, maintain 1-2 times / day.

Note: You absolutely must not water with lime powder or soap, which will cause poison to kill the worms.

People must regularly check their worm farming model, especially when they have just released:

If they are not damaged, they will immediately go down to the substrate immediately after being released.

If there are animals hurt, they will wiggle in place.

And if too many worms can’t get down, the pH measurement may not be suitable, the humidity is too high or too low.

People have to check the temperature of the biomass every 2 days. Testing time is from 8am to 3pm. Maintain the temperature from 25 to 30 degrees Celsius. If it is too high, it must be plowed to create ventilation. If it is too low, it is necessary to use a tarpaulin.

  • Food for earthworms

Fresh buffalo and cow manure: Pour water and manure at a ratio of 1: 1, then use plants to stir well and dissolve. People can use 1% EM probiotics to break down toxins in feces. After about 6 hours, people have to mix again until 3-5 days to be able to feed the worms.

Animal manure is the main food of earthworms
Animal manure is the main food of earthworms

Other livestock manures such as goats, rabbits, pigs: People should mix more chopped agricultural by-products from 5-10cm to increase porosity.

Chicken and duck manure: This feed must also be composted with some agricultural by-products before feeding.

Food sources from agricultural by-products: Dragon fruit, rice straw, corn stalks, beans, peanuts, water hyacinth stalks, bagasse, tapioca residues: The by-products must be chopped and composted with manure. .

Worms are very incompatible with vegetables and fruits with essential oils of lemongrass, herbs, ginger or eucalyptus …

Prevention and treatment instructions for some common diseases in earthworms

The source of water used to irrigate the worms must be clean, unpolluted, and pH neutral.

If changing foods or testing new foods, try only a small area.

In general, compared to many other livestock, earthworms are less susceptible to diseases. However, people need to be monitored regularly to promptly handle if they get sick.

It is necessary to periodically check and treat drugs with the worm farm to prevent diseases
It is necessary to periodically check and treat drugs with the worm farm to prevent diseases

Some common diseases when raising earthworms and how to handle them:

After eating, the worms float to the surface of the bed, crawl and turn purple, and die. If there is food left on the bed, farmers must take it out and then water it on the bed, stop feeding the old food, do not give them too much protein food.

Worms are suffocated due to lack of oxygen, so they will crawl to the ground, bruised bodies. At this time, people stop feeding, use the country to dig the bed surface to create porosity and ventilation for the worms.

Above is the entire technique of raising earthworms fully and in detail. People can apply to expand the scale of separate breeding or raising in combination with other livestock and poultry, which bring high profits. Happy successful people.

Emilia Chaney
Emilia Chaneyhttps://agrisearch.net
My name is Emilia Chaney. I'm a social girl from Romania with a big smile and 3 passions: Agriculture, Travel and Social Media. I try to make this blog practical, full of great advice and inspiring ideas.

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