Durian is a crop with high economic value. In our country, durian is mainly grown in the Southeast, Central Highlands, and Mekong River Delta. In today’s post, AgriSearch.net would like to introduce to you Durian planting techniques efficiency, productivity. Please do not rush through this article!
There are many ways to propagate durian trees, self-propagation durian will help people save investment costs, better seed quality.
Propagation by sexual method
In this method, people use durian seeds to propagate by seed germination. People choose seeds from golden rice, no pests, plump seeds, then incubate in pots or sow directly into planting holes.
This propagation method is rarely used by farmers because durian trees propagate by sexual methods for late harvest, it takes from 8 to 9 years to start harvesting.
Propagation by clonal method: grafting U, T
About U-shaped grafting: On the rootstock, people use sharp knives to create a U-shape, they are careful when creating the shape not to touch the core wood inside. Then split on the mother plant a graft so that it is equal to the cut on the rootstock. Then place the grafted eye on the rootstock and then wrap the grafted eye with a nylon string.
Propagation by branch tower: There are 2 main tower tower methods: wedge tower (wedge grafting) and top tower (top grafting).
For the wedge grafting method, people should use the base of the pyramid about 3-5 months old, the real body has a diameter of about 4-5cm. Grafts choose young branches, light green color 4-5mm in diameter, about 30cm long, choose branches growing from the main branches or from the main trunk.
Durian branch extract
People should cut branches in the middle of the rainy season, the branches are healthy, free of pests, so choose new branches that move from the stage of young branches to adulthood, the leaves at the buds have not yet bloomed.
People need to regularly visit the garden, on rainy days you don’t need to water, but on sunny days you need to provide moisture to avoid letting the bulbs dry out. After the roots are extracted from the pot, they can be planted.
Technique of growing durian trees
After choosing a healthy, quality, pest-free plant, the farmers proceed to plant a new one. Usually, people should choose straight seedlings, well-developed roots, with 3 or more branches, about 80cm tall, about 0.8cm in diameter or more.
People note that people dig holes, fertilize about 15-20 days before planting with organic and microbial organic fertilizers. In the process, people keep the hole moist.
People should plant sparsely so that the garden is well ventilated, the trees are healthy, the density is 70-100 trees/ha, the distance is 10-12m/tree.
– Step 1: Before planting a new plant, people should turn the manure in the hole from top to bottom, inside and out so that the fertilizer is evenly distributed throughout the hole.
– Step 2: In the planting hole, people create a place to place durian trees, depending on the size of the gourd so that they can create a suitable hole. In the middle of the planting hole, farmers dig a hole about 20cm deep, 1-2cm larger in diameter than the nursery.
Step 3: Use a sharp knife or scissors to cut off the excess and curved roots. Then gently make a long incision along the gourd, being careful not to break the gourd. Place the potted plant in the planting hole, so that the potting surface is about 2-3cm higher than the crater. Then gently separate the gourd from the nursery, avoiding damage to the roots.
When placing pots, try to put the seedlings straight, do not place the nursery pots too shallow or too shallow.
– Step 4: People cover the tissue and compact it, they should cover the outside with soil about 1-2m lower than the potting mouth so that when watering, water does not stay at the roots.
– Step 5: Plug the stake to hold the tree
People can use bamboo, cork, wood … about 1-2m long, 2-3cm in diameter depending on the size of the seedling as a support for the tree.
– Step 6: Watering after planting, people proceed to water and keep the moisture for the plants after planting.
– Step 7: Cover the sun. People can use banana leaves, trees, dried coconut leaves … to conduct sunshade for newly planted seedlings, and at the same time, people use straw, dry spicy leaves … to keep the plant moist.
Durian tree care techniques
– Fertilizer period for durian trees. Because the durian tree is a large tree with a wide canopy and strong roots, the nutritional requirements of durian trees are very high. Therefore, farmers need to apply a higher amount of fertilizer than other crops.
+ Construction phase (new planting):
When making pots, you should apply 2 to 3 kg of special OBI-Sea Bee 3 bio-organic fertilizer/hole and water the tank full, after 20-30 days of sowing, it will help the plants grow well and increase the ability to grow. future resistance to pests and diseases.
+ Silky durian stage (from 1 to 3 years)
Divided into 6 times, 3 times in the dry season, 3 times in the rainy season, 2 months apart each time. The specific amount of fertilizer is as follows:
The first year: Use 6 to 8 kg / tree of organic fertilizer OBI – Sea Bee 3 is specially divided into 6 times, applied 20 to 30 cm from the root to water.
2nd and 3rd year: Use special OBI-Sea Bee 3 product 8 to 15 kg/plant divided into 6 times of fertilizer per year.
+ Year for fruit: divided into 4 times:
– The amount of fertilizer for the following years will gradually increase by 10-15% for durian trees when the fruit is stable (10-12 years old).
Water the durian tree
Durian is a moisture-loving plant but cannot tolerate waterlogging, so people need to have a reasonable watering regime for the tree.
For new trees and small trees, people need a root cabinet, watering to keep the tree moist, if not provided with enough moisture, the tree will not grow, wilt, and die.
In the pre-flowering period, about 2-3 days people should water once, but the amount of water is reduced because during this period the watering needs of the plants are not high.
During the fruiting period, the need for watering is high, so at this time, farmers need to provide enough water for the plants. If there is not enough moisture, the tree will drop fruit.
In the period of fruit ripening, the plant’s moisture needs decrease, so farmers need to adjust the amount of water for irrigation. During this period, if farmers water too much, the fruit will ripen late.
Pests and diseases on durian trees
– Powdery mildew (Bemisia tabaci) often causes damage by sucking the sap, on the trees where the planthoppers suck, it is a favorable environment for the spread and development of viruses and bacteria harmful to the tree.
– Red spider (Tetranychus urticae), fire planthopper (Thrips palmi): often damage durian trees in the dry season, less harmful in the rainy season.
– Stem borer, durian branch borer
Adult stem borers are usually brown, about 30mm long, with gray hairs on the body, young worms have milky white bodies. The adult stem borer lays eggs in the crevices of the trunk, cracks in the branches.
Diseases caused by the fungus Phytophthora palmivora.
Phytophthora palmivora is the cause of many different diseases on durian trees: root rot, latex slag, sap, gum bleeding, stem cracking…. The fungus Phytophthora palmivora is usually found in the soil, when conditions are favorable: high winds, rain, waterlogging.. the fungus will grow and spread throughout the garden.
Wish farmers success with the technique of growing durian trees that we share. Thank you for your interest in following the article.