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Complete instructions for durian tree care from seedling to harvest

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Part 1: Caring for durian trees from the newly planted stage to the 4th year (basic construction period).

Author: Luan Vu

Because many of you are interested in taking care of a complete durian tree from seedling to fruit collection, I wrote this article with the hope that it will answer some of the questions of those in our group.

1. Choose a durian variety

Currently, the whole country has many varieties that have been and are being grown on a scale and area from small to large for business and self-sufficiency for family needs. Among them, there are two prominent types: grafted trees and grown from seeds of native varieties.

Popular grafted varieties include: Monthong, Ri6, Musangking, Blackthorn, kandao, cow barn, monkey brain… Regarding varieties grown from native seeds, there are 3 main groups: green-skinned bitter melon, green-skinned pumpkin and a round-seeded fruit. Thin rice is commonly grown in the Central Highlands, Long Khanh, Dong Nai.

In general, each type has its own advantages and disadvantages as well as different market shares. Grafted varieties require high care, higher productivity and a strong consumer market, so they are suitable for commercial cultivation.

As for native varieties, they require less care, are easier to bear fruit, have high yields, and have a sweeter aroma than grafted varieties. However, because the edible portion is smaller, few people like it today. Another problem is that when grown from seed, the uniformity of the product obtained is impossible due to the high variability when durian is pollinated.

Whichever type we choose, we must deeply exploit its strengths and minimize its weaknesses to achieve the desired effect.

2. Take care of baby durian trees


Seedlings of any type, not just durian trees, when first planted, are characterized by a weak root system and are susceptible to pests and diseases when the tree has not yet reached a safe height (over 1.5m). Therefore, special care is needed during this period because this is the period for us to build the foundation and framework for the tree. Trees with good foundations and healthy frames will have better yield and fruit quality.

Water is an indispensable element when plants are young. Depending on the terrain conditions and farming areas, there should be a suitable irrigation system, minimizing labor and investment costs.

In the delta, it is possible to take advantage of the ditch system to irrigate on both sides, which will greatly reduce investment costs compared to the irrigation pipe system running each tree. In the highlands (midlands, hills), it is necessary to invest in irrigation pipes and nozzles running throughout the garden to ensure enough moisture for the plants to grow when they are young and also limit the amount of seedling loss for growers.

Pipe runs are also very diverse from HDPE pipes, PVC pipes, soft PE pipes… Nozzles are also diverse from drip, rain spray, as well as focusing on the root area.

Proper moisturizing is a method to promote rapid root system development, from which well-nourished plants will grow stronger. Normally, watering should be done in the cool of the afternoon, because it not only protects the root system from shock but also retains moisture for an additional 12 hours at night.

If you can proactively water at a reasonable time frame, the plants will grow better than random watering without a certain time frame. Water is also the main way to provide additional nutrients for plants both when they are young and when they are in business.

Reference: Durian irrigation system construction and installation service

3. Fertilizer for seedlings

Sign the following age separatelyThere are two forms: organic and inorganic (chemical). Depending on the purpose of use, the dosage and method of use are also different.

Organic fertilizers today are also very diverse

Powder or tablet form: composted manure, vermicompost, garbage compost, microbiological organic fertilizer (mineral and non-mineral). Used as base fertilizer and concentrated fertilizer at certain times of the year such as the transition between the dry and rainy seasons or periodically throughout the year.

Usually the initial amount of fertilizer is about 10kg/root and an additional 2-5kg is added each time after that. This amount plus organic compost will create fertility for the soil, helping the plant have a solid foundation in the future. From the second year onwards, the amount of organic fertilizer applied to each root will increase depending on conditions, the best is about 30kg of manure per root per year to create nutrients as well as a stable environment for the tree to grow well and healthily. strong.

Liquid stool

Composted manure, fish protein fertilizer, soybeans, bananas, animal bone compost, calcium hydrolyzate from eggshells or seafood shells, vegetables…

This type is used to supplement nutrients for plants at each time or each stage of plant growth during the year. For example, fish or bean protein is added when the plant is preparing to sprout or the leaves have completely matured to promote stronger leaf growth.

Banana juice to supplement minerals, enzymes as well as potassium helps plants and leaves grow stronger.

The compost of vegetables provides trace minerals. The hydrolyzed mixture of manure has a more nutritional balance and will help supplement the nutrients evenly and be used when the leaves turn old and accumulate internal energy to prepare for new growth…
How to make these types of fertilizers yourself I will share in another article.

Chemical fertilizers

Most are added when the plant is young because of its quick absorption, improving plant health better and faster than organic types with reasonable use. Initially, I recommend using root irrigation at a dose of about 30-50g/root for fast-dissolving inorganic types (30-10-10; 20-10-10; 20-20-15…).

Periodically about once every 7-10 days will help the plant grow faster. In addition, adding root growth stimulants such as Atonik, N3M, Humic, Fuvic… with a dose of only 1/2 compared to the instructions in the first 3 months when the tree is in the ground will help the tree become stronger and minimize tree death later. when planting.

4. Control pests and diseases.

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Create ventilation and maintain biodiversity to minimize pest outbreaks. However, it is still necessary to stock ready-made microbial products to handle when unfavorable conditions arise.

Controlling pests and insects currently includes three-color mushrooms, BT, and essential oils, wood vinegar, camphor… The two main objects to worry about are green leafhoppers and twig borers. You should pay attention to the density and harm of these two types to proactively prevent them.

On fungal diseases, there are: Ketomium, Tricoderma,… Bacterial diseases with antibiotic fungi: Penicilium, Streptomyses… managed quite well.

The principle is that prevention is key, don’t let the mud become an epidemic before treating it will cause damage and be more difficult and costly. These species can be grown at the base in combination with organic fertilizers.

Thereby creating an existing antagonistic ecosystem at the base of the tree to control pests and diseases. Normally, I will replant after 3 months.

5. Prune branches to create a durian canopy

Create a durian canopy

When the tree is still young, in the first 2 years, you should only lightly prune branches with dry tips and select buds that are growing in the wrong position or have pests. Do not prune branches too early as this will flatten the branch trunk before the tree is fully developed. After 2 years, you can prune the inner branches to stimulate the tree to grow more concentrated branches.

Cutting the buds is also something that should be considered. With grafted durian varieties, cutting the buds too early will cause the loss of branch branches from 3m up. This branch arrangement will later determine the productivity of the durian tree. So you need to consider carefully before applying.

In general, to create healthy plants, the humidity around the root area must be stable, the soil should be loose and nutritious, so the plant will grow continuously. Better plant resistance to pests and diseases.

You can visit the garden to learn about pests and diseases at any time of the day. But to check the plant’s health, you should visit the garden from 5-6 pm. At that time, the tree uses up all the energy provided at night while sleeping, so looking at the leaf surface, gloss, powder layer, and leaf morphology is very easy to evaluate the health of the tree. If the plant lacks internal energy, it can be supplemented with enzymes from fermented plant juices, fermented herbs…

Author’s note: Here I would like to end the section on Taking care of seedlings (from sowing to the 4th year). In the next article, I will write about how to care for mature trees from fruit production to post-harvest recovery.
You remember forward to it. Thanks a lot.
If you have any contributions, please comment and I will add any missing parts
Wishing you good practice.

We invite you to refer further Part 2: Taking care of durian trees Harvest period

Hello everyone. Author Luan Vu.

Emilia Chaney
Emilia Chaneyhttps://agrisearch.net
My name is Emilia Chaney. I'm a social girl from Romania with a big smile and 3 passions: Agriculture, Travel and Social Media. I try to make this blog practical, full of great advice and inspiring ideas.

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