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A Detailed Guide to Growing High Yield Coffee Plants

Techniques for growing coffee trees

Techniques for growing coffee trees

Coffee farming is a current farming model that many households are interested in. For coffee plants to grow and develop healthy. You definitely need to know Coffee growing techniques and things to pay attention to when taking care of this plant. The content of today’s article will help farmers have more information for this topic.

Requirements on soil and climatic conditions for growing coffee trees

  1. Soil (land for cultivation)

– Coffee trees can grow on many different types of soil such as red basalt soil, gray soil, mixed soil … but the most suitable group is still basalt red soil.

– The soil must be well drained, have high porosity, and have a pH of 4.5 – 5.0.

– Cultivation layer has a depth of 0.8 – 1m, soil rich in nutrient quality, medium or high organic content.

– If you want to use the land for perennial coffee, before uprooting the new plant, you need to plow the soil thoroughly, dry the soil and plant about 2 or 3 crops before replanting coffee.

Soil conditions determine the growth and development of coffee plants

  1. Weather condition

– Coffee trees, coffee jackfruit: hot and humid tropics, the temperature is from 24 to 26 degrees Celsius, the rainfall reaches 2000mm/year or more.

– Coffee and tea: cold highland climate, subtropical, temperature from 20-22 degrees Celsius, rainfall from 1700-2000mm/year.

– Note: all three coffee varieties above need a short dry period after harvest to differentiate the coffee sprouts.

– Wind and light

+ Hot or cold wind directly affects coffee plants, reducing yield and quality if strong winds are encountered during the flowering stage. Therefore, it is necessary to plant windbreaks around the garden or between rows during the construction phase.

+ Coffee trees like scattered light, so it is recommended to intercrop coffee with trees with high canopy such as avocado, jackfruit, and live pepper to reduce direct light reaching the coffee tree.

  1. Density of coffee trees

– Coffee with: + For good and flat land: 3m x 3m = 1,118 trees/ha

+ For medium and sloping land: 3m x 2.5m = 1,330 trees/ha

– Jackfruit coffee: 5m x 5m or 7m x 7m = about 700 trees/ha

– Coffee and tea: 2m x 1m = about 4000 – 5000 plants/ha

Selection of coffee varieties

– Voi coffee: + TR4, TR9 are coffee varieties that our Crop Institute has researched and selected for high quality yield, encouraging farmers to choose and replicate.

+ The varieties Huu Thien, Thien Truong, Truong Son TS5 are coffee varieties originating from Lam Dong, high yield, good rust resistance, strong growth.

– Coffee and tea: TN1, TN2, … TN10.

Coffee growing techniques

– Planting hole: 1 month before planting, people should dig holes and fertilize, the hole is about 60 x 60 x 60cm in size, the distance depends on the planting density (item 3).

– Lining: 1 hole = 10-20kg of rotting manure + 1kg of HVB bio-organic fertilizer + 0.2kg of HVB trace mineral fertilizer + 0.3 – 0.5 superphosphate + 0.5 kg of lime powder. Mix the above fertilizer with the top soil layer, deep soil layer of a separate type to create a basin. After mixing the manure to fill the hole, raise it to 5-10 cm high, lightly tread with your feet.

After fertilizing, people continue to put the coffee tree in the hole and fill it with soil
After fertilizing, people continue to put the coffee tree in the hole and fill it with soil

– Planting coffee trees

+ After a month, we proceed to plant seedlings in the hole. Depending on the size of the nursery, dig a hole in the middle of the hole, 10cm larger in diameter, about 30cm deep.

+ When planting, we need to slightly tear the plastic layer of the nursery pot, but do not break the pot. Place the tree in the center of the memory hole to straighten the tree and align, the potting side is 5cm lower than the ground.

+ Backfill the soil slowly, using us to compact the surrounding soil.

+ Dredging the tank around the base, about 1m – 1m in diameter, compacted into the bank to avoid when it rains, the soil drifts down to cover the seedlings.

Techniques for taking care of coffee plants

– Plant windbreaks for coffee: in the construction and autumn stages or coffee trees need careful windbreak. People should plant yellow cassava as a windbreak, plant it in the middle of the coffee row, about 2 or 3 rows of coffee, then 1 row of yellow cassava. The yellow cassava carcass can be used to press green when replacing new plants.

– Weeding coffee: Because coffee trees have a lot of roots to absorb nutrients in the surface layer, it is necessary to weed regularly, about 4-5 times a year. Clean both in the tub and on the sides of the tub. When weeding can be combined with brushing and before fertilizing also need to clean the weeds.

Pay attention to how to make a tub for coffee plants to facilitate fertilizing and watering
Pay attention to how to make a tub for coffee plants to facilitate fertilizing and watering

– Make a coffee tank properly: the wall of the tub needs to be compacted to the bank, 15-20cm higher than the inside surface, wash the tub once a year at the beginning of the rainy season, expand the tub according to the canopy, until the middle of the tanks Fast delivery stop. Making a tub makes watering and fertilizing more convenient and effective.

Watering techniques for coffee plants

– In the dry season, it is necessary to water coffee trees and seedlings once every 10-15 days. Coffee in the business stage needs to be watered every 20-25 days. When watering, it is necessary to concentrate watering so that the plants can flower at the same time to increase the rate of fruit set.

– If there is an unseasonal rain, it is necessary to conduct “chasing irrigation” to provide enough water for the plants to flower evenly.

– Can be watered with “beaker” or “stick” water in the basin depending on the terrain and water source. Drip irrigation is a great way to save water but still ensure the plants are always supplied with the necessary amount of water.

Harvest

– Harvesting coffee at the right ripeness, to have high quality coffee, it is necessary to have red or medium ripe berries, not too green. Do not leave overripe or dry fruit on the tree. If these are mixed, they need to be dried separately.

– The number of ripe or medium-ripe fruit harvested is 95%, the final harvest rate may be lower.

Harvest coffee only when the fruit on the tree is more than 40% ripe
Harvest coffee only when the fruit on the tree is more than 40% ripe

Hopefully, through the article and some personal experiences, farmers can practically apply and take care of coffee trees to achieve the highest economic efficiency.

Refer to the article: Top 3 best coffee trees in 2020-2021

Emilia Chaney
Emilia Chaneyhttps://agrisearch.net
My name is Emilia Chaney. I'm a social girl from Romania with a big smile and 3 passions: Agriculture, Travel and Social Media. I try to make this blog practical, full of great advice and inspiring ideas.

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